Monday, March 22, 2010

Types of Cows

  This animal has a capacious barrel and an unusually large heart girth. She lacks the stimulation necessary to use her food for producing milk. This is shown by her lack of udder, thick withers, thick covering of flesh over the back, and general smooth, beefy appearance.  
  This cow has so strongly developed the tendency to produce milk that she uses the greater part of all the food she can eat and digest for this purpose and carries no surplus flesh. Her withers are thin and sharp, and her back and pelvic region angular and bony. Her udder is also well developed.
A cow should be expected to carry somewhat more than her normal flesh for a short time after calving, but this beefy appearance should disappear within a month or less.

Dairy Temperament

  It should be understood that it is natural for a cow to fatten considerably toward the end of her milking period and when dry. This surplus fat is usually lost during the first three or four weeks after calving. It is impossible to fatten a high-class dairy cow with any ration during the best part of her milking period, or even to keep the fat that is on her body at Oalving time from being removed during the first few weeks she is in milk.
  The cow that shows these characteristics to a marked degree is said to have a good dairy temperament. This means she is endowed by nature with a strong stimulation to produce milk, and uses practically all the nutrients she can digest for milk production. This accounts for the spare form and absence of any surplus fat, even when the animal evidently has abundant food. As a result of the above, a high-producing cow when in milk is usually thin and sharp over the withers, her backbone strong and prominent, and her hips and pelvic region stand out almost free from flesh.
  When the cow is dry, or nearly so, she should carry more flesh than when in full flow of milk, and she should not be criticized on this account. The breed type should be taken into account as well, and the mistake avoided of judging all by the same arbitrary standard.thin a month or less.
Friday, March 19, 2010

The Dairy Conformation

 The body of the dairy cow should be angular in shape as viewed from the front, the side, and over the top or withers. This angularity or sharpness of points has been commonly spoken of as the wedges. Angularity and sharpness of withers are associated with dairy production and are in contrast to the fleshy, well-rounded, and rectangular form as found in the beef type.

The Dairy Form

 The modern high-producing dairy cow is a result of selective breeding. This means that her ancestors have proved their productive ability and that they approach the breeder's ideal of good dairy form.
Their function has been to produce large quantities of milk, and observant breeders have found that this function demands that the animal be so formed that she has the bodily equipment to carry on the work of milk secretion (production).
Breeders have found that certain characteristics of form are always associated with high productive ability,and they consider these features in selecting their breeding stock. First among them is the general shape of the animal.
Tuesday, March 16, 2010

The General Characteristics of the Dairy Type

 "Type," in this connection, refers to the conformation of the animals which indicates or suggests the purpose it serves. A person familiar with cattle in general, but not with highly developed dairy cattle, looking for the first time upon a high-class dairy cow in full flow of milk would have his attention especially directed to three points as follows:

1. The extreme angular form, carrying no surplus flesh, but showing evidence of liberal feeding by a vigorous physical condition .

2. The extraordinary development of the udder and milk veins.

3. The marked development of the barrel (body) in proportion to the size of the animal.

 These three points should be kept in mind as describing the special characteristics of the dairy animal in comparison with those bred for beef, or with inferior dairy animals. Sometimes the error is made of attributing this lack of flesh, so characteristic of a good dairy cow, to insufficient feeding. The dairy cow does not, however, have the same appearance as an animal not of the dairy type that is in thin flesh because of insufficient feed. A high-class dairy cow never carries much flesh when in full flow of milk. The stimulation to produce milk is so strong that all the feed she can consume and digest above that needed for maintenance is utilized in producing milk. Such an animal, although thin in flesh, has an alert, vigorous appearance, her hair is soft and healthy, her skin pliable and loose, her eyes are bright, her paunch is full, and a general appearance of thrift and contentment is noticeable. An animal thin in flesh on account of insufficient food has a stupid appearance and shows a lack of vigor, while the rough, long hair stands on end. The paunch may be large or not, depending on the bulkiness of the feed consumed by the animal.
Monday, March 15, 2010

The dairy type

  There is but one entirely satisfactory way to select cows for dairy purposes, and that is by records of production of each individual, as determined by the use of scales for weighing the
amount of milk and the Babcock test for measuring the amount of butterfat in the milk. Official testing of pure-breds and cow test association, or dairy herd improvement association work, have made commendable progress during the past decade; but there are still vast numbers of cows used for dairy purposes on which no tests for milk and butterfat production have ever been made. In determining the value of such animals for dairy purposes the estimate must be based upon conformation (shape or build), or the degree to which the animal approaches what is known as the dairy form or type. While such estimates may be very inaccurate, the
development of the function of milk production through generations of selection and breeding in that direction has brought about certain characteristics in the conformation of the animal that may be taken into account in judging of the development of these functions. 
  The breeders on Jersey Island in 1834 formulated the first scale of points for dairy cattle. At the present time the breeders' associations have prepared for each breed a carefully drawn scale of points that are of assistance in acquiring a skill in the selection of cows by conformation. A scale of points undertakes to describe the conformation of the animal that, in the judgment of the author, denotes the highest development of the characteristics sought. The comparative importance of the parts described is represented by points that total 100 for the perfect animal. The lack, up to the present time, of a real scientific basis for preparing a scale of points makes them unsatisfactory in many ways, but they are of great general value, especially to the beginner.

Origin of Cattle

 There are no cattle native to America. All those found in North and South America are descended mainly from animals brought from Europe. The domesticated cattle of Europe are descended from wild forms that originally lived in Europe and Asia.

Market Value of Breeds

 Cows of a distinct dairy breed usually - and rightly - sell for more than the same number of cows of mixed or unimproved breeding, even if the latter are known to be equally good as dairy cows. The cows of a distinct dairy breed are worth more to the buyer, because he can reasonably expect these animals to show the typical character of the breed to which I.hey belong in production of milk, in. disposition, and in other breed characters. A cow of mixed breeding, even if a good dairy cow, or an unusually good milker in a breed where milking qualities are not generally found, cannot be counted upon to reproduce herself in her offspring. It is a well-known fact in animal breeding that the longer a certain character has existed in a breed, the more certain it is to be transmitted.
Sunday, March 14, 2010

Classification of Cattle

 Various classifications of cattle have been made, some based upon geographical distribution, as lowland and mountain cattle, others upon their anatomy, especially the shape of the skull, and others as to their domestic use. Today American writers arrange them according to the economic value as beef breeds, dairy breeds, and dual-purpose cattle.
 No system of classification has yet been devised that can be applied in more than a general way to the individuals that make up the great mass of cattle. If we undertake to arrange them by breeds, we find, in addition to the numerous pure breeds, animals With all possible mixtures of the blood of two or more breeds, or with more or less improved blood mixed with the scrub, or unimproved. If we should attempt to arrange them according to the purpose for which they are adapted or kept, we would have a constant gradation from the extreme beef to the extreme dairy development.
It is difficult even to arrange a suitable classification of the pure breeds, since the animals may vary greatly within a breed on account of environment and treatment. The following descriptive terms are in common use:
 Scrub.  A scrub is an animal of mixed or unknown breeding, without the type or markings of any recognized breed. Other terms used with practically the same meaning are native, mongrel, or unimproved, as well as other names of a local character, such as "piney woods." These terms indicate that the animal has only a small amount of the blood of any of the improved breeds. Typical scrubs are not numerous except in those sections where very little attention is given to cattle raising. The term "scrub" is often applied also to inferior animals of recognized breed type.
Cross-bred is a term used to indicate that the animal is the off-spring of parents of distinct breeds, either high grades or pure-bred.
 Grade.  This term is generally used with a certain breed name, as Grade Jersey or Grade Shorthorn. This means that the animal in question has one-half or, usually, more of the blood of the breed mentioned. When the proportion of the pure blood is large, the animal is called a "high grade." The proportion of the blood predominating may be so great that for all practical purposes the animal is the same as a pure-bred; but it cannot be called a pure-bred, no matter how many crosses have been made, and such animals cannot be registered in any of the various herd books.
 Pure-bred.  The term "thoroughbred" is often improperly used for the proper term, "pure-bred." The term thoroughbred is properly applied only to the well-known English breed of horses. Pure-bred cattle, as understood in America, are those whose ancestors came from the native home of the breed in question and conformed to the requirements of this breed here. This blood must have been kept pure and unmixed, and records must be available showing the descent from these ancestors. The records of descent of these animals are kept in a systematic manner by associations formed for the purpose by those interested.
The breeds of cattle common in America are usually classified as dairy, dual-purpose, and beef.

Shorthorn, Red Polls, Polled Durham, Devon
Holstein, Ayrshire, Jersey, Guernsey, Brown Swiss
Shorthorn, Hereford, Aberdeen Angus, Galloway

 In addition to the above, small numbers of French-Canadian, Dutch Belted, Kerry, and polled Jersey cattle, all to be classed as dairy breeds, are found in certain localities of America.
Friday, March 12, 2010

Inheritance Value of Breeds

 The breed is only one of many factors to be considered in carrying on profitable milk production. In some cases the value of the breed is overestimated, but more often the reverse is true. Our present dairy breeds represent the efforts toward improvement in certain definite lines made by several generations of breeders. It would be folly for a man to attempt to start at the beginning to build up for himself what has taken a century or more for others to build. By making use of animals of a highly developed breed, adapted to the purpose for which they are to be used, he is taking advantage of all the work that has been done and starting at the highest point of advancement reached by other breeders.
 Pure breeds have been bred generation after generation with certain objects in view, and in the course of time these characters I income fixed as breed characters, and are transmitted. It is easy to understand why the chances are good for getting a good dairy cow if the ancestors are the Holstein — known to have been bred about 2,000 years in one locality and noted for hundreds of years as great dairy animals — or if the parents are Jerseys, bred for 500 years, or longer, along one line.
Wednesday, March 10, 2010

The Principles of Livestock Improvement

 The methods developed and emphasized by these pioneer breeders are essentially the same as those followed today; careful selection of breeding animals, liberal feeding, and general good management. Bakewell was the first to understand and practice in-breeding and line-breeding as a means of fixing desirable characteristics. A certain amount of crossing was also done in the early history of some breeds — with the Ayrshire and the Shorthorn, for example.
 At the present time the efforts of cattle breeders are directed toward further improvements in the breeds already in existence and not towards the establishment of new breeds. The reason for this is the realization that breeds are now in existence that are adapted to practically any conditions under which cattle may be profitably kept. Furthermore, to develop a new breed with as well-established characteristics as those already in use would require more than the lifetime of a man, and would not be financially remunerative. There is every indication that we probably will have fewer breeds in the future.

The Bos sondaicus Type

 Cattle of this type were brought into southern and eastern Europe during the great migrations that took place and were spread over the greater part of that continent. At that time these cattle were small in size, and short-bodied, and had small horns. From this type probably most of our breeds in use today are descended, including the Brown Swiss, Jersey and Guernsey. However, the  Shorthorn and Ayrshire, while having this type as a foundation, were probably mixed in the early days of the breeds with the blood of the Bos primigenius type, through crossbreeding principally with Holland cattle.

Original Types or Species

 Although there is a wide divergence of opinion concerning the origin of domesticated cattle, most investigators of the subject agree that the cattle of Europe are descended from two original types or species. One is called the Bos longifrons by some authors, while other authors use the term Bos sondaicus. The second type is known as the Bos primigenius.
Tuesday, March 9, 2010

Origin of Breeds

 A breed is a recognized further well-defined subdivision of a type or species. The number of breeds and sub-breeds of cattle is great. On the continent of Europe alone between forty and fifty distinct breeds are described by German and French writers. Great Britain is the home of eleven breeds, which have been imported to the United States, and in addition to this as many more minor breeds are described by English writers as of local importance.
 With few exceptions these numerous breeds have been long established and historical records are not available to indicate their definite origin. One exceedingly important factor, however, was the ancestry of the breed as between the two forms of wild cattle from which our present domesticated forms are descended. This difference in origin is presumably the greatest factor in causing the wide differences between the Holstein and the Jersey breeds — these two representing better than other common breeds the two lines of descent from the original wild forms.
Monday, March 8, 2010

The Bos primigenius Type

 This type originally was an immense, powerful animal, standing six to seven feet high at the withers (the ridge between the shoulder bones). The horns were long and slender, curving forward near the middle and ending with the points slightly upwards. This animal was apparently domesticated in northern Europe. From it are descended the cattle of Holland and other parts of North Europe.
 The most fundamental difference between the two original forms of cattle was the shape of the skull, and this difference is still evident in modern breeds. The Bos primigenius was characterized by a long, narrow head. This type of skull is well illustrated by the modern Holstein, whose long narrow head is taken to indicate descent from the original long, narrow form. The remains of the Bos longifrons, or the sondaicus type, show a broad short head, which characteristic is best illustrated by the short broad head of the typical Jersey.

Labor Dissatisfaction

 The objections raised by hired help to labor on the dairy farm are the long hours, the steady, regular work, and to some extent, the nature of the work itself — or rather to the conditions under which it is done. To reduce the labor problem to the minimum, first of all the hours must be made as reasonable as in other types of farming in the same community. Arrangements should be made so that the milkers are through with their work as early as men doing field work. Some provision must also be made for regular time off by each laborer in turn. If the owner is doing his own work he should realize that he should follow the same practice himself and take some time away from his work, otherwise in time he will come to dread the monotony of it.
 The objections sometimes made to the nature of the work come almost, entirely from the conditions under which the work is done. If the cows are milked in a clean, well-lighted, comfortable stable reasonable hours, and modern methods of handling the manure and feed by overhead carriers are installed, the objections to the work will largely disappear. In most localities a man with a family, if provided with a comfortable house, may be employed by the year with the best satisfaction to both the laborer and his employer.

Dairying a Year-around Job

 Dairy farming does require the constant attention of the owner or employees; but there are advantages as well as disadvantages to this situation. A bricklayer working one-half the year will seldom accumulate much property; neither will the farmer whose productive labor is confined to a few months out of the year, as is the case when a single crop is grown for market. In the long run, the farmer, as well" as the mechanic, who has work and who works throughout the year, at reasonable wages, will prosper the most. Dairying gives the farmer an opportunity to use his time regularly throughout the year. Members of his family also find work adapted to their age and strength.
 The grain farmer crowds his work into a few months and requires a large amount of help for a few days or weeks only; and he finds this help almost impossible to secure, since he has no work to offer for the remainder of the year. He has little reason to complain if an abundance of extra labor is not at hand for the short period he is willing to utilize it. Labor on the dairy farm is distributed throughout the year, and arrangements may be made accordingly.
Sunday, March 7, 2010

The Labor Question

 The problem of securing sufficient and satisfactory labor is generally considered the greatest difficulty encountered in operating a dairy farm. This difficulty arises from the necessity of treating the cow carefully at all times, and especially from the fact that the work becomes somewhat monotonous because it has to be done regularly every day. Although the labor problem is a serious one, it is no worse than that experienced in almost any other branch of farming; and, in fact, under proper conditions it may be less serious.

Dairying a Safe Business

 One of the advantages of dairy farming which appeals to the farmer — especially a farmer with limited capital — is the quickness and the certainty of the returns. The dairy cow gives an immediate return and her product is always marketable. The returns, while not large at any one time, are steady throughout the year and may be depended upon. The market price of dairy products varies on the whole less than almost any other class of farm products.
 As a result of these conditions the development and expansion of dairy farming, particularly in the Mississippi Valley states, has in the past developed with the greatest rapidity during periods of financial depression in agriculture. The general farmer at such times finds it desirable to produce sufficient dairy products to meet his current expenses at least.

The Cow as an Efficient User of Roughage

  The special value Of the cow as a domestic animal arises from her ability to consume and digest large quantities of roughage (hay) and to convert it into milk and meat suitable for the digestion of man.
 The hog is a wonderful producer of meat, exceeding all other animals in regard to the amount of flesh produced from a given amount of feed, but the hog can use only limited amounts of roughage.
 The sheep can utilize coarse feeds to advantage, but other factors prevent the keeping of a sufficient number of them to use the immense quantities of roughage available.
 The production of large amounts of roughage is necessary in any good farm system and it is unavoidable in connection with the growing of crops. The cow and the steer must be relied upon almost entirely to convert this into a form suitable for human food. A considerable portion of the land in most agricultural sections is suitable only for pasturing because it is too wet or too dry, too hilly, or too rocky. Such regions naturally develop a livestock Industry. On farms growing crops freely it is necessary to practice rotation of crops, resulting in quantities of hay and silage being available that can only be used by livestock of some kind, but host of all by cattle.
Saturday, March 6, 2010

Meat from Dairy Cows

  Although cattle of the dairy breeds are kept primarily for milking purposes, they furnish nearly one-half Of the beef supply of the United States; and in addition they are the source of nearly all the veal that goes to market, amounting to more than nine million head annually.
  As population becomes more dense and land values higher, a still larger proportion of the meat supply will come from dairy animals. This condition has long existed in Europe, where beef is
primarily a by-product of dairying; and there is evidence that the same factors are at work in America.
  From 1900 to 1936 the number of dairy cows in the United States increased 67 per cent, while the increase in those classed as beef animals was only 0.8 per cent. Between 1900 and 1910 the numbers of beef animals actually decreased, while the dairy herds were materially expanded. The fundamental reason for this is the greater efficiency of the dairy cow as a producer of human food.
Friday, March 5, 2010

Manure Value

A dairy cow weighing 1,000 pounds voids about 12 tons of solid and liquid manure in a year - worth, in round numbers, $28.00 at the market price of the three elements of fertility contained. Under proper conditions from 70 to 80 per cent of the manure voided by farm animals may be saved and returned to the soil.
The Ohio Experiment Station obtained an actual value of $4.69 per ton for manure when applied at the rate of 8 tons to the acre in a five-year rotation. The average of all their extensive investigations showed an average value of $2.97 measured in increased crops grown.
The Purdue Experiment Station reports crop increases worth from $2 to $8 with an average of $5 for each ton of manure applied, the variation depending upon the fertility of the soil and the rate of application.
But this does not tell all the story. The dairy farmer usually is a, purchaser rather than a seller of grain, and by this means adds constantly to the fertility of his farm. The purchase of concentrated feeds adds a large amount of fertility to the farm. Furthermore, the keeping of dairy cattle usually means that a large proportion of the land is kept in grass, consequently making it possible to prevent washing and erosion of the soil, which is responsible for the rapid deterioration of many farms.
It is a well-known fact that the yield of grain per acre of the agricultural lands of Denmark, Germany, and parts of England where dairy farming has been followed for a period of years, has materially increased during the past fifty years.

The Cow as a Cheap Producer of Human Food

Morrison says, "Among all the animals of the farm, dairy cows of good productive capacity are unequaled as producers of human food." The cow produces more human food from a given quantity of feed than is produced by any other farm animal. As producers of protein, hens are the nearest competitors of dairy cows, while as producers of energy the pig ranks second. However, both the hen and the hog require more concentrated food in proportion to the roughage or hay than the cow, and in this way, except as consumers of waste products, they are hardly as efficient.

Cow vs. Steer as Food Producer

The comparison is made of the milk produced by a Holstein cow in one year with the composition of the carcass of a fat steer weighing 1,250 pounds.
A comparison of the feed consumed by the steer and the cow would be still more striking, since the steer required nearly two years of liberal feeding to build his carcass, and during the fattening period the ration was mostly grain. The product from the cow was made in less than one year, and largely from roughage. On the other hand, the dairy cow has to be fed two years before she comes into milk, although when once mature she is productive for at least five or six years. It is also recognized that the labor requirements in caring for the cow are much more than for the steer.

Birth of Art of Breeding

 Up to about 1770 these natural conditions and the introduction of new types by the means of conquest and migration were the chief factors in the development of distinct breeds. Beginning about 1770, a great interest was aroused in England in the improvement of the quality of cattle and other domestic animals of Great Britain. This exceedingly important movement known as the art of breeding seems to have started largely as the result of the work of Robert Bakewell. This pioneer in the art of breeding began active operations about 1760 and continued until his death in 1795. The activities of the Collings brothers in improving the Shorthorn breed, beginning about 1780, rank next to those of Bakewell in calling public attention to the possibilities of livestock improvement. The remarkable movement initiated by these men for the improvement of domestic animals spread over Great Britain and influenced the entire civilized world as well; the beginning of modern improved breeds is to be traced back to it.

Influence of Migration and Conquest

Another factor in the formation of breeds was the conquest of one country by another, whereby a new mixture generally resulted from the cattle introduced by the invaders. In early historical times whole peoples migrated at times for long distances, taking their cattle with them. For example, the Simmenthaler breed in Switzerland reveals the same characteristics of skull as found among the original cattle of Sweden, from which localities the Burgundian tribes are supposed to have migrated about 400 A.D.
Next to these two factors already mentioned come conditions of environment, such as climate, food, and topography (physical features) of the country. In early times, with no organized means of transportation, little exchange of animals took place from one locality to another except as in the cases mentioned, when a whole people migrated or conquerors brought in a new type of animal. In these times there was little if any attempt at improvement. The effects of natural conditions were allowed to work out almost undisturbed by the selection of man. Breeds formed by such means may be called natural breeds.
Thursday, March 4, 2010

Milk as Food

From the earliest historical times, all civilized nations have used milk and its product as food. It has long been observed that mankind seems to have a natural craving for milk, which is especially noticeable when he is completely deprived of milk and dairy products for several months. Its importance as a food for infants is also generally recognized. However, the full explanation of the important relations of milk to the diet has been forthcoming only within the past quarter of a century.

The proteins must not only be ample in amount but of suitable kinds and quality. Proteins for grains and vegetables are best made up by the use of some animal protein. Off all animal proteins, those of milk are the best adapted for making up what is lacking in a ration largely composed of cereals.

The second remarkable discovery that greatly emphasizes the value of milk as food was that of the vitamins . These substances, of which at least fourteen have been discovered so far, are necessary either for the growth or other functions of the young and for the well-being of mature humans and animals.

They are produced primarily by plants, from which source man and animals must get them directly or indirectly. Four or five of the more important vitamins are found abundantly in milk, and many of the others to a lesser degree. One of these, vitamin D, is being added by various procedures to an increasing bulk of market milk. No other single food contains so many of the known vitamins, so that man has come to depend largely upon milk and dairy products for several of these indispensable substances.

A third great advance that has been made in the knowledge of nutrition concerns the mineral requirements. It has long been known that certain minerals are necessary for both man and animals. Only in recent years, however, has the extent to which man and domestic animals suffer from a deficiency of certain minerals been recognized. Lime is the substance most often lacking, although phosphorus — and at times iodine — are also consumed in too small quantities. Milk is an especially good source of lime and phosphorus.

The experience of mankind for thousands of years has shown the absolute need of milk in the diet. Furthermore, the reasons why milk is an absolute necessity in the human diet are now under¬stood and, as a result, the consumption of dairy products in the future is certain to increase. It is also shown that the cow re-turns more human food from a given amount of feed than any other domestic animal.

Important Soil Elements

Of the ten or eleven chemical elements apparently necessary for plant growth, only three are liable to be lacking in sufficient quantities in the soil. These are nitrogen, phosphorus — measured as phosphoric acid - and potassium — measured as potash. The fertilizing value of barnyard manure depends upon the amount of these ingredients contained. Commercial fertilizers used in enormous quantities in the older agricultural sections of the eastern and southern states supply one or more of these three elements.These commercial fertilizers have a well-established market value which depends upon their content of these three elements. Each bushel of wheat, for example, takes from the farm fertility that would cost 27 cents if replaced in the form of commercial fertilizers. A bushel of corn removes fertility worth, on the market, 23 cents. A ton of alfalfa hay sent to market carries with it fertility worth $10.95 on the market.

Dairy products, however, take but little from the farm in pro¬portion to their selling value. Milk carries from the farm about 13 cents' worth of fertility in each 100 pounds and taxes the fertility of the farm more greatly than does the sale of any other dairy product. Even then, at $2 a hundred for each dollar's worth of fertility sold in milk an income of $12.60 is received, while with corn at 75 cents a bushel each dollar's worth of fertility brings only $2.65 when sold. The sale of butter or cream takes from the farm BO little of value as a fertilizer that it is hardly worth considering. Since butter fat contains only carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, it has no value as a fertilizer. The only element of fertility in butter is the small amount of nitrogen contained in the curd, amounting in value to only 64 cents per ton, while the market value of this amount of butter at 35 cents per pound is $700.

Relation of Dairying to the Fertility of the Soil

It is agreed that the conservation of the fertility of the soil is the greatest problem of agriculture. The fact is established that it is possible to maintain the fertility of the soil where grain crops are sold from the farm. It is, however, certain that it is seldom done. So far, in our American history, grain selling has meant selling fertility that has been stored up in the past ages; and it has been followed by farmed-out soils and unprofitable agriculture. On the other hand, we find farms in almost every locality — and even entire countries can be pointed out - where the fertility of the soil has been vastly increased by livestock farming.

Importance of dairy farming

Milk, with its products, serves as one of the most important sources of food for all civilized nations. The more highly developed and prosperous the people, the greater the amount of milk and dairy products they consume.

It has been pointed out that the native races of Africa, America and Australia, which have never developed beyond the stage of barbarism, do not use milk as a food. The primitive races of Europe and western Asia made use of milk, as their descendants have done, and this fact may be a reason for the great intellectual development of Europe and America.

At least one authority in presenting the results of his investigations in human nutrition, which have changed the viewpoint of the entire civilized world on the subject, remarked: "The keeping of dairy animals was the greatest factor in the history of the development of man from a state of barbarism."

A large part of the best and highest priced agricultural lands of the world are utilized for the keeping of dairy cattle. It is a well-known  fact that the most prosperous nations, as well as the best developed physically and mentally, are those in which the dairy cow has long been the foundation of agriculture.